Formation of Thaats-Indian Music Theory

Formation of Thaats-Indian Music Theory:

different thaats have been explained below-music formats


We will describe how the thaats formation is made. First of all we will describe
the formation of first thaat, that is “Shuud Thaat”. Well! this is perhaps the most simple formation, the notes used in this thaat are all white keys are used in this thaat, that is (C-E-E-F-G-A-B) or in indian music (Saa- Raay-Gaa-Maa-Paa-Dhaa-Nee)
Now -a-days it is called “Balawal Thaat”. In no other formation all white keys will be used, it is also known as “Kharaag Garaam” because we started from note “C” and this note is called Kharraj in Indian music. If we play the Arohi Amrohi of this thaat, it will be C-D-E-F-G-A-B in either direction.
Now let us start our octave from “D” rather than “C”, so if you play the full seven notes our “D” note will play on “E” note of our first formation that has been described earlier. As a result two notes will change from white to black notes, that is “E” and “B” notes will become black, to play the exact tone of (Do-Re-He-Fa-So-La-Te-De).
This thaat will be called “Kaafi Thaat” in Indian music.
Now let us move to our third formation. Now start your “C” note from “E” note and play all seven notes, as a result all notes will become black notes, it is also called “Bharween Thaat”.

Now our fourth formation will start from “F” note that means considering “F” note as our “C” note we will play all seven notes and it will become “Kalyaan Thaat”.

Now repeating the drill and making “G” as our “C” note and playing all seven notes from there, it will be called “Khamaach Thaat” In our next exercise we will make “A” as our “C” note and similarly play seven notes so as a result we will get “Asawari Thaat”. Now exercise will start from “B” note considering as “C” note and this will be our last last Thaat known as “Todi Thaat”.

Arohi-Amrohi-Indian Music Theory

Arohi-Amrohi-Indian Music Theory


The people who want to learn about Indian music theory, must know the meaning of Aarohi and Amrohi. It has been described below:


Normally no song or melody goes beyond three octaves (Sabtak). The Octave is called “Sabtak”. in Indian Music. Now three Octaves are, Lower octave, Middle octave and the High Octave.
As you know one octave consists of seven notes (C-D-E-F-G-A-B) so arohi means to play from middle towards the high octave i.e. to play CDEFGAB.

Amrohi means to play in the reverse order. From high towards low octave. So this means, In Arohi we move upwards whereas in Amrohi we move downwards.
In present day Indian music, the composition of melodies depend on Arohi and Amrohi.

It must be understood that Arohi and Amrohi are different for Raag (we will describe it later), whereas it is different for (Taan) we will know about Taan later on too, at present we are only learning about Arohi and Amrohi.

It is important that while playing any Raag the person has to follow the principle to move up in sequence and similarly play downwards in sequence too as mentioned earlier but there are two form of Raags. One is in which all seven notes are used while in the other some notes are skipped over to left.

First form is called (Shuud) in music language which means in sequence whereas the name of other form is (Vikar) which means not in sequence but in skipped over manner.

In “Taan” the singer only shows the formation of notes in different manner on which the “Raag” is based. The expert or experienced, classical or semi classical Indian singers can perform many beautiful formations of “Taan” of the Raag in all three octaves i.e. base, middle and high. Now I will describe something extremely important as under:
Shuud Thaat

The Indian music theory is purely based on “Thaat”. All the “Raag” evolve from Thaats, that means the entire music theory is based on Thaats. In fact thaat provides the base to know about the notes to be used in specific Raag. We will describe all the Thaats one by one so that the students may know and grasp deeper knowledge.

Indian music theory explained in terms of Ghazals Qawali and notes

Indian music theory explained in terms of Ghazals Qawali and notes:



Ghazal is one of the most popular style of singing. It has special importance in Indian music. It’s origin is believed to be the Mughal Dynesty. The emperors and queens were very fond of this performing art. Well! the subject of Ghazal is always romantic, but now-a-days there is no binding, the performers may choose any other related subject too for ghazal. There have been many famous Ghazal singers in the Indian sub-continent. Special gathering, are arranged in the evenings till mid-night to listen to the Ghazal singers. One of the most popular ghazal singers in Indian History is “Jagjit Singh”.

In this form of singing the subject mostly relates to the divine and spiritual personalities that have influenced the masses of people by their spiritual teaching for the spread of religions.

In Qawali many artists take part, but there is always one lead singer. The specialty of this kind of singing is that rhythm is very loud that magically hypnotizes the listeners.

This point is to be noted that there is no nation in the world that has bot been influenced by music. Though they all have their own style and in some cases primitive musical instruments but one thing is for sure that music has international presence.

The names of notes in Indian Music:

In order to acquire knowledge about Indian music, it is important to know the names of musical notes. They are mentioned below:
C (Kharj) – D (Rakkab) – E (Gandhar)
F (Madham) – G (Pancham) – A (Dehwat)
B (Nikhad)


More simple names of the notes are mentioned below:-

c (Saa)
d (Raay)
e (Gaa)
f (Maa)
g (Paa)
A (Dhaa)
B (Nee)
Hope you enjoyed this post and that it has helped people all around the world to better understand the indian music theory.


Indian Music Theory Learning

Indian Music Theory Learning:

indian music theory1

Most of the people are interested to know about the Indian or Eastern Music. Not much has been written about it so people still have the thirst to know about it. I thought I must share my knowledge about it.
Indian Writers use the word “Naik” for the person who has the knowledge of primitive (old) and modern music.
He must be able to know the principle of creating “Raag” (in Indian music specific notes are used in the
formation of Raags and then tunes or Melodies are composed based on “Raags”).
Present methods of Indian Music:

“Alaap” – This is a very common word for people who know very little about Indian music, however for the
knowledge, international music students, it is described as under:-

In “Alaap” few meaningless words such as Aaa, Naa, Nay, Ray, Ree etc. are used.
The actual purpose of “Alaap” is to show the formation of “Raag”. No rhythm is played with the “Alaap”. It is
to highlight the notes that are to be used in the melody to be followed later.

Dhurpat is considered to be the best and simplest way of singing. Usually historical events and praise of
native brave heroes is sung in this style. No complicated formations are used in this. The melody is always in
fast rhythm.


This is a very popular style of singing in Indian music. It comprises of many beautiful formation of notes in
all three Octaves i.e. base, middle and high. The subject of Khyal is always romantic Dhurpat, in which simple
singing is encouraged, was not found to be appropriate for romantic melodies.

Earlier the villagers who lived in the sub-continent of Indian punjab province used to sing Tappa. This kind
of style is purely based on native folk songs wich the shepherds and the farmers used. The native village
girls, used to sing Tappas while they were working in the fields.


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Position of Fingers on Keyboard-How to Play Piano

Position of Fingers on Keyboard-How to Play Piano:

Bar Lines:

On the music sheet you must have seen vertical lines. These lines divide music into measures.


Measures divide music into groups of equal counts.

Double Bar-lines:

Double bar-lines are always used at the end of a piece of music.

In order to acquire more knowledge about bar-lines, measures and double bar-lines, it is recommended that every student must see the music sheet of songs and see by himself what the above mentioned elements mean.
Position of Fingers:

It is very very important to know about the position of fingers while playing keyboard. Let us now do a small exercise of playing keyboard with right hand first. The position of fingers would be as shown in the pic below:

Position of Fingers on Keyboard-righthandposition

Now play notes CDE. The note C is to be played by thumb. Note D will be played by the finger next to your thumb and E would be played by the finger next to the finger that played D note.

Practice these notes for about an hour in either directions with the same fingers. So the Position of thumb is 1 position. 1st finger is 2. Position of 2nd finger is 3, whereas the position of 3rd finger is 4. The position of little finger is 5.

Left hand fingers position:

While playing notes with left hand the position remains the same as mentioned earlier for right hand, which means the first note is to be played by thumb of left hand.





Practice now ABC notes. Remember note C is to be played by thumb, note B by first finger whereas note A would be played by second Finger.

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Natural Music Signs for understanding music theory

Natural Music Signs for understanding music theory:

Natural Sign:

Naturals cancel sharps and flats. A natural sign placed in front of a note cancels the effect a sharp or flat has had. This kind of natural sign can be seen when melody is created in the Indian sub-continent or even Bengali music formations. Look at the pic below and draw 6 natural signs as practice.



First draw vertical downward line. Then make a line at the bottom at an angle. Now draw vertical downward line again little below the first line then join both vertical lines with a short angle line.

Slurs and Ties:

See the slur mark in the pic below:







The slur mark is used for many purposes in music.

The slur mark is very often used under or vertical group of notes to show that they belong together in musical thought. Remember the notes written within a slur are played in a smooth connected manner.

Now as a drill, write few notes as the staff sheet and draw slur mark over them. When two identical notes are connected by a slur mark it is called a tie. The first note is played and held for the value of both notes. Write few identical notes and draw the mark of slur to make it tie.


Legato means to play in a smooth connected manner.

Means to play in a short disconnected manner. Dot placed over or under notes indicate Staccato.

music expressions




is an Italian word meaning loud or full.


is an Italian word meaning soft. See the sign of Piano below:



is an Italian word which means to get gradually slower. See the pic below: