RAAG YAMAN KALYAN



RAAG YAMAN KALYAN

Rag Yaman is one of the most famous raags in Indian classical music. This raag has been abundantly used in many old and new Bollywood songs. All seven notes are used in this raag. There are many famous songs based on raag yaman . It is a very versatile raag, which means you will not only find classical pieces but also the semi classical pieces in this raag. You will also find light music pieces such as bhajan, Ghazals and many film songs such as ZARA SI AHAT HOTI HAI TOU DIL SOCHTA HAI, jAB DEEB CHALE ANA JAB SHAM DHALE ANA, CHANDAN SA BADAN, NAAM GUM JAYEGA, NIGAHAIN MILANE KO JEE CHATA HAI. The question must have risen in you mind that how was it known that these songs are based on raag yaman.

raag yaman kalyan

No raag can be recognized only by the notes that are being used. No raag is recognised by its phrases, the way it is sung, in Indian classical music it is known as chalan, so with the help of the chalan you can find out which raag is it. So all the songs that I have mentioned above are based on the chalan of raag yaman. Now what is the chalaan for raag yaman by listening to which we can say yes this is raag yaman. So remember the best phrase or the chalan is Ne – Re- Ga (B – D- E), so if you listen to these songs carefully you will see this first phrase. Now the second phrase of raag yaman is the combination of Pa- Re, and these two notes are to be taken in the form of glide, they must not be sung separately but with a glide or curved voice from Pa to Re (G to D). This glide can easily be seen in the song Chandan sa badan, or jab deeb jale.and Gar yaad rahey. It is very important to know that all seven notes are used in this raag but Ma (F) is sharp note in it. Some people used F note plainly , but remember in that case the name of the raag would not remain Raag yaman but it would change to raag yaman Kaliyan. If you listen to most of the Bollywood songs, you will find that F sharp note is not used in most of the cases. So we can undoubtedly say those songs are not based on raag yaman but on raag yaman kalyan. The most classical example of this song is the Mohammad Rafi’s Hit song,( Abhi na jao chor kar). This was important to give flavor to the song of requesting mood, if F sharp had been used in place of F major the flavor would have been entirely different. If you sing this song with F sharp, it won’t sound nice and would present an odd flavor to the romantic song.

ALANKAR IN HINDUSTANI INDIAN CLASSICAL MUSIC



ALANKAR IN HINDUSTANI INDIAN CLASSICAL MUSIC


Many people have question in mind and want to know what exactly alankar means and how to perform it. Well we shall discuss this topic in length to make known to music lovers what it exactly means. Can you imagine what ornamentation means to Indian culture? without ornamentation the culture of different parts of India is hard to understand, in each Province of India there is different kinds of ornamentation. In my view the alankar is just like the ornamentation of Indian classical music. without which perhaps the Indian classical music is just like an empty vessel. In Indian classical music the word alankar is used to denote ornamentation, it can also be called as paltas(different forms of singing the combination of notes in aroha and amroha, which means ascending and descending of notes.



ALANKARS IN HINDUSTANI INDIAN CLASSICAL MUSIC

These are taught to the students so that they can understand the distant and difference of various notes but today we are not referring to paltas as alankar but we are referring to alankar as ornamentation. This is special treatment given to a set of notes so that the melody looks beautiful and present specific identity. Well ornamentation is not just specific to Indian classical music but to general Indian music. The very first step that we learn in alankar is meend, which means a glide to other note in a kind of a curved manner. Like if you take plan note C, G, N you will just sing it as they are played on the instrument but in alankar you will have to sing them like the glide as it goes up and down without any break in it, I hope you understand.The good example of alankar can be found in the song sung by great Lata Mangeshkar, RISIK BALMAN. If you listen to this great song, you will understand how the alankar is performed. The next ornament is called khatka, which means to take notes with break, the best example is the song (MAIN TENU SAMJHAWAN KI). So the notes are taken with a little jerk or break, not planly. Khatkas are found in many Indian Bollywood songs. Now let me introduce you to the concept of Zamzam. It is a cluster of khatkas taken together. This is found in maharaster and punjabi folk songs in abundance. It is also a characteristic of tappa singing. It can also be termed as semi classical form of singing. The next is murki, it is nothing but a set of notes taken together quickly for example a very famous song of great Lata ji,,,,(baiyan na dharo balma) But in most of the cases the musician are not to take a lot of murkis because it may mess with the correct form of the raag. The next is called Andolan, which a slow isolation of notes it is used to give serious touch in raag or melody. For example Bollywood song sung by Mandey (poocho na kaisay main ne raain betai). A beautiful composition and perfect example of andolan. The last but not the least is called Gamak, which is very very important for Indian classical music. It is giving shadow to the notes or giving emphasis to the notes to make an effect. Karnatak music gives a lot of importance to the Gamak. It is kind of shaky emphasis to the notes. But point is to be noted that all forms of alankar that have been mentioned above are taken according to the situation, like in our daily life we use ornaments (heavy or light) according to the events that are going to take place. I hope this article must be useful for most of the music lovers.

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INDIAN MUSIC VS WESTERN MUSIC

CONCEPT OF HARMONY IN INDIAN MUSIC



CONCEPT OF HARMONY IN INDIAN MUSIC

Most of you must be knowing that the use of harmony is very rare in Indian music. This is because in Indian music solo or duet singing is preferred to find the quality of the voice of the singer. This is customary in Indian music that the singer has to undergo special kind of training which is based on 10 Thatts of classical music. The question arises why is it important for the singers of the subcontinent of Indo-Pak to have learned these basic Thatts, it is because the compositions of Indian songs are based on thatts and raags which are extracted from the specific thatts. In harmony the solo or duet performances can not be judged properly. However, as a musician, I know that harmony is very much in practice and demand while composing the introduction and interludes during the songs. Various instruments such as Violin is most used to play the melody, 2nd and 3rd harmonies, this certainly enhances the mood of the song and leaves special effects on the listeners.

In western music the harmony seems to be the order of the day, it can be found in all forms of western music. There is no doubt that the instruments and the voices using the harmony seem to leave soothing pleasures of music to the listeners, specially in Christmas carols, the use of harmony is very much customary. No carol seems to be perfect without harmony. In my opinion every singer or the musician must have the knowledge of harmony, how it is sung, what best techniques can be used to further enhance it to make the Indian music rich and to be recognized internationally. This is the time when most of the Indian films are being exhibited all around the world and being appreciated and liked by millions of people, some new experiments should be applied to the primitive Indian music. In early times, even in Europe the music mostly consisted of melody only and very simple melodies were made and sung by the early people, mostly in the churches and cathedrals, to recite religious texts. these didn’t have huge amount of rhythm involved in them. Then as the time passed the composed thought of doing some experiments beyond the melodies of the songs, so they started adding other notes to the melodies and experimented different pitches and notes, and thats what we call harmony now a days. This actually gives the actual depth and color to the melody. For example if the melody starts from C note, we can change it into harmony by using the notes E and G, so when these three notes would play together it will take the form of harmony, so one note would play the melody while the other two notes would play 2nd and 3rd place.

I firmly believe that Indian composers should now do experiments on harmony, to give the primitive Indian music a new flavor and depth which is well renowned all over the world, I personally love harmony, it also sounds great if the singer is backed up by the instrument playing 2nd or 3rd.

Harmony in indian music

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INDIAN CLASSICAL MUSIC ABOUT THATTS

List of 10 Thaats in Indian Classical Music



THE CONCEPT OF THATTS IN INDIAN CLASSICAL MUSIC & List of 10 Thaats in Indian Classical Music

THE CONCEPT OF THATTS IN INDIAN CLASSICAL MUSIC

The thatts play the vital role in learning the Indian classical music. This is known to be the basic knowledge of each person who wishes to learn or know about the Indian classical music. There are 10 basic Thatts on which all the music scholars and the Great Ustad agree. They feel that these 10 Thatts should be enough to cover the entire knowledge of Indian classical music. Well these 10 thatts are as follows:

1. Bilawal

2. Kafi

3. Bharavi

4. Kalyan

5 .Khamaj

6. Asavari

7 .Bairav

8. Marva

9. Purvi

10. Todi

Each student has to know the formation of these thatts.

Bilawal (=Ionian mode): S R G m P D N S’ –

Kafi (=Dorian mode): S R g m P D n S’


Bhairavi (=Phrygian mode): S r g m P d n S’ –

Kalyan (=Lydian mode): S R G M P D N S’ –

Khamaj (=Mixolydian mode): S R G m P D n S’ –

Asavari (=Aeolian mode): S R g m P d n S’


Bhairav= double harmonic: S r G m P d N S’ –

Marva: S r G M P D N S’ –

Purvi: S r G M P d N S’ –

Todi: S r g M P d N S’ –

A thāt must have seven tones out of the twelve tones [seven natural, four flat (Re, Ga, Dha, Ni), one sharp (Ma)]

It is very important that the tones must be in ascending sequence: Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni

A thāt, unlike a raga, does not have separate ascending and descending lines
(as most of you must be knowing that each raga has its own formation to make it separate from others)

A thāt has no emotional quality (which ragas, by definition, do have) (A that only lets you know the boundaries or the limits in which one emotional raga should remain)

We all know that Thāts are not sung but the ragas produced from the thāts are sung.

The Indian classical music is unique in many ways. It has vast canvas on which every mood of life can be painted. Each raga has its own time, and according to the lyrics the melody of the song is composed (sad or joyful mood).

Bilawal is the first basic of all the ten thaats. All the notes in the thaat are white or all in the natural scale. Bilawal as a raag is not sung these days however a small variation of the raag called Alhaiya Bilaval is very common. This is a morning raag and this is note worthy that many religious melodies are composed in this raga. its very easy to sing and even the person who has very little knowledge of music can easily cope with it. Since all note are natural it makes for the singers to sing it effortlessly. it has also been observed that my rhymes for kids are composed in this raga to make it very very easy for the kids to learn it. The most famous ragas in this Thatt are Deshkar, Hamsadhwani, Bihag, etc

The next thaat is Khamaj and it can be obtained by replacing the white Nishad of Bilawal by Komal Nishad. The raags of this thaat are (romantic) hence this raag is mostly used in the form of light classical thumris, tappas, horis, kajris etc. Some people still believe that the origin of this raga is China. Well it must have come from there through travelers or otherwise. The most famous ragas in this thaat are : Rageshree, Jhinjhoti, Des, Mishr Khamaj, Tilang, Tilak Kamod, Jaijaiwanti, Khambavati, Kalavati etc.
this raag is mostly rendered in the form of light classical thumris, tappas, horis, kajris etc

Kafi thaat makes use of the Komal Gandhar and Komal Nishad. So basically it adds Komal Gandhar to the Khamaj Thaat. raag Kafi is one of the oldest raags and its intervals are described as basic scale of the Natyashastra. Thus in ancient and medieval times, Kafi was considered as natural scale. Kafi is a late evening raag and said to convey the mood of spring time.

Raags in Kafi Thaat : Dhanashree, Dhani, Bahar, Bhimpalasi, Pilu, Megh Malhar, Bageshree, etc.

We shall discuss other Thatts in forthcoming Articles.

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Raag Sarparda Indian Music Theory



Raag Sarparda Indian Music Theory

The sweet melodies of Indian Musical Composition based on various Raags have always impressed and attracted the music lovers all over the world.In recent years many foreign students have traveled to Indian Sub-Continent to learn the semi classical and light music. The vast canvas of Indian music provides every shade and mood of musical requirement for all races and nations of the world that is why Indian music is heard and appreciated throughout the universe.

Raag Sarparada indian music theory

Today we shall learn about Raag Sarparda.

Raag Sarparada:

This raag is the Sumpuran (seven notes) raag of Bilawal Thaat. This raag has been accepted as a form of Bilawal.

The time to sing this raag is the first part of the day. According to some pandits Ga is the wadi note of this raag whereas some believe that Dha should be the wadi note.Sa and Pa are the Sumwadi note of this Raag which means that both notes can be used equally as sumwadi.

In Amrohi of this raag the tone of Bilawal must be revealed. The shape of Raag Bihag is also promised at some stage.

According to some pandits this raag has been formed with the combination of Raag Aieman, Aliya and Goond.

This raag has been invented by the Muslim singers(performers).

Arohi of Raag Sarparda:

Sa-Re-Ga-Ma-Dha-Pa-Dha-Ne-Sa(upper octave)

Amrohi of Raag Sarparda:

Sa(upper octave)-Ne-Dha-Pa-Ne-Dha-Pa-Dha-Pa-Dha-Pa-Ma-Ga-Ma-Re-Sa

Chaal of Raag Sarparda:

Sa-Re-Ga-Ma-Dha-Dha-Pa-Pa-Ma-Pa-Ma-Ga-Ga-Ma-Ga-Re-Sa-Ga-Ma-Dha-Pa

Ga-Re-Sa-Sa-Re-Ga-Ma-Re-Re-Sa-Dha-Pa-Dha-Ma-Ga-Ma-Pa-Ma-Ga-Re-Re-Sa-Sa-Re-Sa-Ne-sa-Pa-Dha-Ne-Sa-Ga-Re-Ga-Ma-Pa-Re-Sa

Ne-Dha-Ne-Sa(upper octaves)-Ne-Dha-Ne-Sa(upper note).Ne-Dha-Pa-Ma-Pa-Dha-Ne-Sa(upper octave)-Ne-Dha-Pa-Ma-Ga-Ga-Ma-Dha-Dha-Pa-Ma-Pa-Ma-Ga-Ma-Re-Sa.

Ma-Pa-Ne-Dha-Ne-Sa(upper octave)-Ne-Dha-Pa-Dha-Pa-Ne-Dha-Pa-Ma-Pa-Ne-Sa(upper octave)-Sa(upper octave)-Re(upper octave)-Ma-Pa-Ne-Dha-Ne-Dha-Ne-Dha-Pa-Dha-Pa.

Ma-Pa-Ne-Dha-Ne-Sa(upper octave)-Ne-Dha-Pa-Dha-Pa-Ne-Dha-Pa-Ma-Pa-Ma-Pa-Ne-Dha-Pa-Ma-Ga-Re-Sa.

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indian ragas, indian music theory, music theory, Raag Sarparda

Indian Music Theory-Raag Heem Indian Ragas



Indian Music Theory-Raag Heem Indian Ragas

Indian Music Theory-Raag Heem

It is said that music is the food of soul. There is no doubt about it. You must have seen that even the animals and birds enjoy music and dance on the rythm of its melody.
Music is one of the most healthy and populer hobby for all ages. It is worth metioning that all countries of the world have their own cutural values which they express through their folk songs. So we can say music is a strong medium to let other countries know about your culture.

Today we shall learn about raag Heem.

Raag Heem:

This is an awdo raag of Bilawal Thaat. The time to sing Raag Heem is in the evening.

The wadi Sur(note) of Raag Heem is Sa whereas the Sumwadi note is Pa. In Arohi of this raag Dha and Nee are right (not allowed) whereas In Amrohi Ne and Ga are virgit.

This raag is mostly played and sung in lower and middle octaves. According to some pandits the Raag has been made with the combination of Kalyan and Kamad.

Arohi of Raag Heem:

Pa-Dha-Pa-Sa-Re-Sa-Ga-Ha-Pa-Dha-Pa-Sa.

Amrohi of Raag Heem:

Sa(Upper octave)-Dha-Pa-Ga-Ha-Pa-Ga-Ma-Re-Sa

Chaal of Raag Heem

Pa (lower octave)-Dha(lower octave)-Pa(lower octave)-Sa-Sa-Sa-Re-Sa-Ga-Re-Sa(upper octave)-Ga-Ma-Pa-Ga-Ma-Re-Sa-Sa-Re-Sa-Ga-Ma-Pa-Dha-Pa-sa-Dha-Pa-Ga-Ma-Pa-Ga-Ma-Re-Sa-Dha-Dha-Pa-Dha-Pa-Dha-Pa-Sa-Re-Sa-Pa-Ga-Ma-Re-Sa.

Sa-Sa-Re-Sa-Re-Re-Pa-Dha-Pa-Ma-Ga-Re-Sa-Ga-Ma-Pa-Ga-Ma-Re-Sa.

Sa- Sa-Re-Sa-Re-RE-Pa-Dha-Pa-Ma-Ga-Ma-Re-Sa-Ga-Ma-Pa-Ga-Ma-Re-Sa.

Sa-Ga-Pa-Dha-Pa-Pa-Dha-Pa-Sa-Dha-Pa-Ga-Ma-Re-Dha-Dha-Pa-Dha-Pa-Pa-Sa-Pa-Ga-Ma-Sa-Re-Sa

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Raag Alhaiya Bilawal-Indian Music Theory

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indian ragas, indian music theory, music theory, Raag Heem

Raag Alhaiya Bilawal-Indian Music Theory



Raag Alhaiya Bilawal-Indian Music Theory

raag alhaiya bilawal indian music theory

This raag is the khado -sampuran raag of Bilawal thaat. Ma is not allowed in Arohi whereas Amrohi is sampuran but Ga is not played in sequence in this raag.

Dha is wadi and ga is sumwadi note of this raag. Time to sing this raag is morning.

Arohi:

sa-re-sa-ga-re-ga-pa-dha-ne-dha-high octave sa

Amrohi:

high octave sa-ne-dha-pa-dha-ne-dha-pa-ga-ma-pa-ma-ga-re-high octave sa

Chaal of Alhaiya Bilawal:

pa-ne-dha-ne-high octave sa-dha-ne-dha-pa-ma-ga-ma-re-ga-ma-pa-ma-ga-re-sa

Ne (low octave)-sa-ga-ma-re-ga-pa-ne-dha-pa-ga-ma-pa-re-ne-dha-high octave sa-ne-dha-ne-dha-pa-ga-ma-re-ne-sa-ma-pa-ne-high octave sa re-ne-high octave sa-ne-dha-pa-ne-dha-ne-high octave sa ga ma re sa-re-ne-high octave sa-dha-high octave ne-dha-pa-dha-pa-ma-ga-ma-re-sa

high octave sa-dha-pa-dha-ne-pa-ma-ga-re-ga-pa-ne-high octave sa re sa-ne-dha-pa-ma-ga-re-sa

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Raag Hans Dhun-Indian Music Theory



Raag Hans Dhun-Indian music theory

Raag hans dhun is the Awodo Raag of Bilawal thaat. Ma and Dha are not allowed in this raag.

raag hans dhun indian music theory

Some pandits believe that it’s wadi note is Sa whereas some believe that Ga should be the wadi note of this raag.

Time to sing this raag is the first part of night. Nothing much has been written about this raag in Music Theory Books but this raag is still sung in Dhakan and Even today the Madrasi community sings this raag.

Arohi of raag Hans Dhun

Sa-re-ga-pa-ne-high octave sa

Amrohi

high octave sa-ne-pa-ga-re-sa

Chaal of raag hans Dhun:

sa-re-ga-sa-ga-pa-ga-re-ga-pa-ga-re-ga-pa-nepa-ga-pa-ga-re-ne (low octave)

sa-re-ga-re-pa-ga-pa-ne-pa-ga-re-ga-re-sa

ga-pa-ne-pa-ne-ne-high octave sa re sa-ne-high octave re sa- ne-pa-ne-pa-ga-re-ga-re-ne-pa-ga-re-high octave sa

pa-ne-pa-ga-pa-ne-high octave sa-re-high octave ga re sa -ne-high octave re sa -ne-pa-ne-pa-ga-re-ga-re-ne-pa-ga-re-high octave sa

pa-ne-pa-ga-pa-ne-high octave sa-re-ga-high octave re sa-ne-pa-ne-
high octave re sa-ne-ga-re-pa-ne-ne-high octave ga re-ne-high octave re sa sa re sa-re-high octave ga re sa-ne-pa-ne-high octave re-sa-ne

high octave sa sa re sa-ne-pa-ne-high octave sa-ne-pa-ga-pa-ga-re-pa-pa-sa-re-ga-re-ga-sa

low octave ne-re-ga-pa-ne-high octave re sa sa -ne-pa-ga-pa-ne-high octave re sa -ne-pa-ga-pa-ga-re-ne

Compositions in this raag are unique and different from other famous raags. In my opinion the music composers must use this raag very often to make it more popular and acquainted among the music lovers all around the world. I am sure the readers of this article and the previous ones will be getting benefited.

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Raag Jaldhar Kedara-Indian Music Theory



Raag Jaldhar Kedara-Indian Music Theory

raag jaldhar kedara indian music theory

Raag Jaldhar Kedara is the Khado (six notes) raag of Bilawal thaat. Ga is not allowed in this raag. This raag is the combination of Jaldhar and Kedara. Black Ma is not allowed in this raag. It’s wadi note is pa and re is the sumwadi note. Point to be noted is that in Kedara Re is weak in purwang whereas Ne and Dha are weak in Utarwang. In Kedara these notes are not weak at all.

Arohi:

sa-re-sa-ma-re-ma-ma-pa-ne-dha-ne-dha-high octave sa

Amrohi:

high octave Sa-ne-dha-pa-ma-ma-dha-pa-ma-re-sa

Chaal of Raag Jaldhar Kedara:

ma-ma-pa-dha-pa-ma-re-sa-sa-re-sa-ma-re-ma-ma-pa-dha-pa-ma-ne-dha-pa-ma-ma-re-sa-re-sa-sa-ma-ma-re-sa-ma-re-sa-ma-pa-dha-pa-ma-pa-ne-dha-high octave sa-ne-dha-pa-ma-dha-pa-ma-dha-pa-ma-high octave sa-ne-dha-pa-dha-pa-ma-re-sa

ma-ma-pa-high octave sa-ne-dha-ne-dha-pa-ma-pa-high octave sa re sa-ne-dha-pa-dha-pa-ma-dha-pa-ma-re-sa

pa-dha-pa-ne-dha- high octave sa re sa ma ma re sa-ne-dha-ne-dha-pa-pa-dha-pa-ma-re-ma-re-sa

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raag kedara, raag kedar notes, raag kedar notation, indian music theory, music theory

Raag Durga notes and notation-Indian music theory



Raag Durga notes and notation-Indian music theory

Raag Durga is the Awodo (5 notes) raag of Bilawal thaat. Ga and Ne are not allowed in this raag.

raag durga notes indian music theory

Ma is the wadi note of this raag. It resembles a little bit with Sud Malar. Time to sing this raag according to pandits is afternoon.

Due to the absence of Ga, it resembles Suratt but remember Re and Dha are not played in the Arohi of Suratt, whereas these are played in this raag. Beside this Ne is present in Suratt but it is not allowed in this raag, this factor separates raag Durga from Suratt.

The harmony of Re and Pa makes it sound like Malar. The formation of Raag remain intact by using Ma frequently and the listeners enjoy it.

Because Ne is not present in this raag therefore it is separated from Sarang as well.

Chaal of raag durga:

pa-ma-pa-dha-ma-ma-re-pa-dha-ma-re-sa

sa-dha-sa-re-pa-dha-ma-pa-ma-pa-high octave dha -ma-re-sa-sa-re-sa

pa-ma-re-sa-dha-dha-ma-re-pa-dha-ma-re-pa-ma-sa-re-sa-sa-dha-sa-ma-pa-dha-pa-ma-high octave sa-dha-ma-re-pa-dha-ma-pa-ma-re-dha-ma-re-sa-pa-ma-pa-dha-ma

ma-ma-pa-high octave sa-re-high octave ma re sa – pa-dha-ma-ma-pa- high octave sa re re -dha- high octave sa re re-dha- high octave sa-ma-pa-high octave sa – ma-pa high octave sa-pa-dha-dha-ma-pa-ma-pa-dha-ma-re-ma-sa-re-ma-sa-re-sa

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